France 1691-D louis d'or
This specimen was lot 20868 in Heritage sale 3010 (Boston, August 2010), where it sold for $1,840. The catalog description noted, "Louis XIIII gold Louis d'Or 1691D, MS61 NGC, Lyon, fully lustrous and crisply struck, an attractive coin which could easier have been graded higher." Droulers calls this type louis d'or à l'écu, grosse tête à la mèche épaisse et moin oblique (louis of the shield, large head with weird hair). This bust is peculiar to the Bordeaux mint, otherwise it would be lumped in with the other louis d'or à l'écu (Dr/4 no. 406) struck 1690-93. This type is usually found struck over older coins, a process involving all French silver and gold coinage during 1690-1709. These "reformations" were the result of financial manipulations too tedious to discuss here. The louis d'or à l'écu was succeeded by the louis d'or aux 4 L struck 1693-1700. Both these types are the first somewhat common gold coins since the 1640's but all are expensive relative to the silver écus. Droulers gives this date a 35% premium over the common date (1690-A).
Recorded mintage: 41,660 "flans neufs" plus an unknown number of "flans reformés".
Specification: 6.75 g, .917 fine gold, corded edge, 24-26 mm diameter, designed by Joseph Roéttiers.
Catalog reference: KM 278.3, Dr/4 no. 407, Dr/2 no. 260.
- Droulers, Frédéric, Répertoire General des Monnaies de Louis XIII à Louis XVI (1610-1792), 4e édition. Paris: AFPN, 2009.
- Duplessy, Jean, Les Monnaies Françaises Royales de Hugues Capet à Louis XVI (987-1793), Tome II, 2e édition, Paris: Maison Platt, 1999.
- Krause, Chester L, and Clifford Mishler, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1601-1700, 1st ed., Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 1996.
- Tucker, Warren, Scott Cordry and John Kraljevich, Heritage Sale 3010: World Coins, Dallas, TX: Heritage Auction Galleries, 2010.