Utrecht 1803 ducat Fr-317
In 1795 the revolutionary armies of France invaded and occupied the United Provinces and reorganized it into the puppet Batavian Republic, which survived until 1806, when Napoleon installed his brother Louis on the newly created throne of the Kingdom of Holland, which lasted only until 1810. After Napoleon's fall in 1814, William I, of the old house of Orange, was made king. This type is recorded for 1795-1808 from Gelderland ("GEL"), Utrecht ("TRA") and Holland ("HOL"). To complicate matters, restrikes are known from the Stuttgart mint.
Recorded mintage: 2,089,000 (a common date).
Specification: 3.45 g, .983 fine gold, .109 troy oz AGW.
Catalog reference: Sch-39, Fr-317, KM 11.3.
- Peters, T., J. Scheper and J. Mevius, Muntalmanak 2014, 31e editie, Amsterdam: Nederlandse vereniging van munthandelaren, 2013.
- Cuhaj, George S., and Thomas Michael, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1801-1900, 7th ed., Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2012.
- Friedberg, Arthur L. and Ira S. Friedberg, Gold Coins of the World, From Ancient Times to the Present, 7th ed., Clifton, NJ: Coin and Currency Institute, 2003.