Netherlands

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Coins in the Netherlands range from Roman coinage, medieval coins, Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw, provincialen), Napoleontic to Kingdom of The Netherlands and the Euro.

Contents

Cities (late middle ages upto 1580)

Some individual cities were allowed to produce coins. The denominations were heavily influenced by the Habsburg empire (Germany). German bishops often invaded and occupied territories of The Netherlands. The cities resisted, producing their own styles and denominations. In this financial competition, coins were often mutually invalidated, triangularly cutting a snippet on the rim or by means of an imprint (klop). Dutch painter [Marinus van Reymerswaele] (1490 – 1546) is famous for paintings with coins in view.

Provinces (Provincialen, 1581-1795)

three-masted ship on six-penny pieces of the period
three-masted ship on six-penny pieces of the period

The Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën) — was a republic in the area of what is now The Netherlands, existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the Batavian Republic, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. This period encompasses the Golden Age of this sea-faring nation. It is also here, and in this period that the Beurs (bourse, stock exchange) was invented in order to collect money to build ships. The coins in the different provinces had a similar denomination and value and there was a common style. For instance, the scheepjesschelling (ship shilling), a six penny piece, proudly displays a three-masted sailing ship. It is common to collect series over provinces or over time within a province. On Dutch fairs, these coins can be found under Provincialen. Catalogues are also organized along the provinces. Note that Holland was and is but one of the seven provinces, on the west coast in the middle of the shoreline. Innovations in the prevention of currency clipping (muntsnoeien) were implemented in this period, with regularly jagged coin edges (gekartelde rand) and a chain of tiny pearls on the front and back side along the rim. The pearled rim style survived upto the last coined guilders (2002).

The coins of the seven provinces occur in a number of denominations.

Batavian Republic (January 19, 1795 - June 5, 1806)

The Batavian Republic was inspired by the French Revolution and created with armed support of the French. The collection of provinces was replaced by a unitary state. In 1806, at the end of this period, Napoleon Bonaparte gave his brother Louis, the throne of the Kingdom of Holland. The word Batavia comes from the name of the German tribe (Batavians) that presumably had entered the Netherlands by ships over the Rhine river in ancient times. The Latin adjective Batavorum occurs on many coins, e.g. on East-Indies coins Indiae Batavorum , the India of the Bataves, which is the current Indonesia.

Kingdom of Holland 1806–1810

Kingdom of Holland 1806–1810 (Dutch: Koninkrijk Holland, French: Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country. King Louis did not perform to Napoleon's expectations—he tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's—and the kingdom was dissolved in 1810 after which the Netherlands were annexed by France until 1813. The kingdom of Holland covered the area of present day Netherlands, with the exception of Limburg, and parts of Zeeland, which were French territory. East Frisia (in present day Germany) was also part of the kingdom.

United Kingdom of The Netherlands (1815–1839)

  • Willem I - William I Frederick, born Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau (24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843). Denomination 10 gulden, 3 gulden, 2½ gulden, 1 gulden, 50 cent, 25 cent, 10 cent, 5 cent, 1 cent, and ½ cent. The 2½ gulden piece is from this period on commonly called the rijksdaalder (state dollar).

For a chart of the Schulman numbers catalogue, see On the decimal coinage of the Netherlands.

Kingdom of The Netherlands (1840-today)

Decimal coins. Collections are usually organized according to reigning monarch:

  • Willem II (1840-1849) - Denomination 2½ gulden, 1 gulden, 50 cent, 25 cent, 10 cent, 5 cent, 1 cent, and ½ cent.
  • Willem III (1849 - 1890) - Denomination 10 gulden, 5 gulden, 2½ gulden, 1 gulden, 50 cent, 25 cent, 10 cent, 5 cent, 1 cent, and ½ cent.
  • Wilhelmina (1890 - 1948) - Denomination 10 gulden, 5 gulden, 2½ gulden, 1 gulden, 50 cent, 25 cent, 10 cent, 5 cent, 2½ cent and 1 cent.
  • Juliana (1948 - 1980) - Denomination 10 gulden, 5 gulden, 2½ gulden, 1 gulden, 50 cent, 25 cent, 10 cent, 5 cent and 1 cent. In 1967 the 6.5g 720/1000 silver guilder is replaced by a 6g nickel guilder.
  • Beatrix (1980 - 2013) - Denomination 10 gulden, 5 gulden, 2½ gulden, 1 gulden, 50 cent, 25 cent, 10 cent, 5 cent and 1 cent. In the year 2002 the Netherlands gulden (DFL,ƒ) coinage was replaced by the Euro (€) coins.

East Indies

VOC 1 duit 1734
VOC 1 duit 1734

Under the VOC (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie - United East Indies Company) coins for the Dutch East Indies (current Indonesia) were produced.

West Indies


Dutch Euro coinage (since 1999)

Since 1999, Euro coins were available after the virtual stage of the European currency (ECU).

In the Netherlands, Euro coins were introduced in 2002 for general circulation.

Counterfeit

Known falsifications:

  • 3-gulden pieces of Willem 1
  • 2½-gulden pieces (rijksdaalders) of 1853, 1863, 1898, 1932 and Wilhelmina '38 grof haar
  • Gold 10 gulden pieces of Wilhelmina 1896, '97 and '98.
  • Gold 5 gulden pieces of 1912 were counterfeit in large numbers.

Uncategorized and predecimal coinage

Without an image, these PCGS coins are difficult to determine (To Do).

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