Italy, Milan

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Milan in 1378
Milan in 1378
Milan in 1477
Milan in 1477
Milan about 1700
Milan about 1700
Northern Italy in 1860
Northern Italy in 1860

Milan was not an organized state until the duchy of Milan was erected for the Visconti in 1395. The duchy dominated northern Italy, provoking fear and loathing from its neighbors, particularly the Pope, the republic of Florence and the republic of Venice. Her wealth aroused the greed of the kings of France, who invaded and occupied her on several occasions 1494-1525. The Sforza dukes died out in 1535, setting off another war over the succession, which eventually passed to emperor Charles V. On his abdication in 1556, Milan passed to the Spanish Hapsburgs, who ruled it until their extinction in 1700. On the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession (1714), Milan went to the Austrian Hapsburgs, who ruled it until Napoleon conquered it in 1797. It remained a French satellite until his fall in 1814, when it was returned to Austria. Milan was eventually incorporated into the kingdom of Italy in 1859-60.

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