Brazil 1823-R 40 reis
This specimen was struck at the Rio mint in Brazil in 1823. The minting of copper forty réis began in the mid-eighteenth century and continued until 1833, well after independence. The forty réis was the same size as that of the old twenty réis. This type was struck at Bahia 1824-30, Cuiaba 1823-31, Goias 1823-30 and Rio 1823-31. Counterfeits are numerous, particularly of the Bahia issues, which were cruder than Rio issues.
By the 1830's, so many had been issued that the public began to refuse them. In 1835, the government called them in and countermarked them to half their former value to increase their acceptance. Private and counterfeit countermarks also exist, making this series confusing but fascinating to collect.
Recorded mintage: 920,000.
Catalog reference: KM 363.1 (without countermark), KM 436.1 (with countermark).
- Cuhaj, George S., and Thomas Michael, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1801-1900, 7th ed., Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2012.
- Pimentel, Alvaro Mendes, Catálogo de Moedas Brasileiras de 1643 a 1962, 9a Ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1962.
- Amato, Claudio, Irlei S. Neves and Arnaldo Russo, Livro das Moedas do Brasil, 12a ed. Sao Paulo, 2008.