Brazil 1821-R 40 reis
This specimen was struck at the Rio mint in Brazil in 1821. The minting of copper forty réis began in 1722 and continued sporadically thru the eighteenth century. Issues became larger and more frequent after 1802. This type was struck at Bahia 1820-23 and Rio 1818-22. Large numbers were minted until 1831, well after independence. Counterfeits are numerous, particularly of the Bahia issues, which were cruder than Rio issues.
By the 1830's, so many had been issued, along with copper five, ten, twenty and eighty réis, that the public began to refuse them. In 1835, the government called them in and countermarked them to half their former value to increase their acceptance. Private and counterfeit countermarks also exist, making this series confusing but fascinating to collect.
Recorded mintage: 5,307,000.
Catalog reference: KM 319.1.
- Cuhaj, George S., and Thomas Michael, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1801-1900, 7th ed., Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2012.
- Pimentel, Alvaro Mendes, Catálogo de Moedas Brasileiras de 1643 a 1962, 9a Ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1962.
- Amato, Claudio, Irlei S. Neves and Arnaldo Russo, Livro das Moedas do Brasil, 12a ed. Sao Paulo, 2008.
- Alberto Gomes and Francisco Antonio Magro, Moedas Portuguesas e do Território Que Hoje é Portugal: Catálogo das Moedas Cunhadas para o Continentes e Ilhas Adjacentes, para os Territórios do Ultramar e Grão-Mestres Portugueses da Ordem de Malta, 6ª Edição, Lisbon: Associação Numismática de Portugal, 2013.