Brazil 1790 40 reis
The minting of copper forty réis began in 1722 and continued sporadically thru the eighteenth century. This specimen was struck at the Lisbon mint for Brazil in 1790. It began life as a forty réis but was countermarked in 1809 to raise its value to eighty réis, at which value it likely circulated until the 1830's. Issues became larger and more frequent after 1802. Large numbers were minted until 1831, well after independence. Counterfeits are numerous, particularly of the Bahia issues, which were cruder than Rio issues.
Recorded mintage: 140,000.
Catalog reference: originally KM 217.1, then KM 290.1 (with countermark).
- Krause, Chester L., and Colin R. Bruce II, Standard Catalog of World Coins: Spain, Portugal and the New World, Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2002.
- Pimentel, Alvaro Mendes, Catálogo de Moedas Brasileiras de 1643 a 1962, 9a Ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1962.
- Amato, Claudio, Irlei S. Neves and Arnaldo Russo, Livro das Moedas do Brasil, 12a ed. Sao Paulo, 2008.
- Alberto Gomes and Francisco Antonio Magro, Moedas Portuguesas e do Território Que Hoje é Portugal: Catálogo das Moedas Cunhadas para o Continentes e Ilhas Adjacentes, para os Territórios do Ultramar e Grão-Mestres Portugueses da Ordem de Malta, 6ª Edição, Lisbon: Associação Numismática de Portugal, 2013.