Brazil 1831-R 20 reis
This specimen was struck for Brazil and dated 1831. It is a counterfeit probably made after the counterstamp decree of 1835, as the counterstamp is also fake. The minting of copper twenty réis began in 1693 and continued until 1832, well after independence. The twenty réis was the same size as that of the old ten réis. The genuine type was struck at Bahia 1825-30 and Rio 1823-30. Counterfeits are numerous, particularly of the Bahia issues, which were cruder than Rio issues.
By the 1830's, so many had been issued that the public began to refuse them. In 1835, the government called them in and countermarked them to half their former value to increase their acceptance. Private and counterfeit countermarks also exist, making this series confusing but fascinating to collect.
Recorded mintage: unknown but very common.
Catalog reference: KM 360.1 (without countermark), KM 423.1 (with countermark).
- Cuhaj, George S., and Thomas Michael, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 1801-1900, 7th ed., Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2012.
- Pimentel, Alvaro Mendes, Catálogo de Moedas Brasileiras de 1643 a 1962, 9a Ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1962.
- Amato, Claudio, Irlei S. Neves and Arnaldo Russo, Livro das Moedas do Brasil, 12a ed. Sao Paulo, 2008.